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Meanwhile, existing victorious Allies such as France, Belgium, Italy, Greece and Romania gained territories, while new states were created out of the collapse of Austria-Hungary and the Russian and Ottoman Empires.
Despite the pacific movement in the aftermath of the war, the losses still caused irredentist and revanchist nationalism to became important in a number of European states.
the world war is generally said to have begun on 1 September 1939, with the invasion of Poland by Germany, and subsequent declarations of war on Germany by France and most of the countries of the British Empire and Commonwealth.
Germany set out to establish a large empire in Europe.
World War II altered the political alignment and social structure of the world.
The United Nations (UN) was established to foster international cooperation and prevent future conflicts.
The German Empire was dissolved in the German Revolution of 1918–1919, and a democratic government, later known as the Weimar Republic, was created.
The interwar period saw strife between supporters of the new republic and hardline opponents on both the right and left.
The Empire of Japan surrendered on 15 August 1945, ending the war in Asia and cementing the total victory of the Allies over the Axis.Although Italy as an Entente ally made some territorial gains, Italian nationalists were angered that the promises made by Britain and France to secure Italian entrance into the war were not fulfilled with the peace settlement.From 1922 to 1925, the Fascist movement led by Benito Mussolini seized power in Italy with a nationalist, totalitarian, and class collaborationist agenda that abolished representative democracy, repressed socialist, left wing and liberal forces, and pursued an aggressive foreign policy aimed at forcefully forging Italy as a world power—a "New Roman Empire".The United Kingdom and its Commonwealth remained the only major force continuing the fight against the Axis, with battles taking place in North Africa as well as the long-running Battle of the Atlantic.In June 1941, the European Axis launched an invasion of the Soviet Union, giving a start to the largest land theatre of war in history, which tied down the major part of the Axis' military forces for the rest of the war.
From late 1939 to early 1941, in a series of campaigns and treaties, Germany conquered or subdued much of continental Europe.