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Administrative Prodecure Act National Park Hospitality Ass'n v. Ahmanson & Co.; Majority shareholders have a fiduciary responsibility to the minority and to the corporation to control the corporation in a fair, just, and equitable manner. Under the safe-harbor provision of 27A of the Securities and Exchange Act, forward-looking statements must be accompanied by meaningful cautionary statements that adequately identify important factors that could cause actual results to differ. SEC; The Securities and Exchange Commission must consider efficiency, competition, and capital formation, and failure makes promulgation of the proposed rule arbitrary and capricious. accused who expresses a desire to deal only through counsel does not waive that right merely by responding to further police-initiated questioning unless accused initiates further communication. A security interest may attach if the debtor has rights in the collateral, but there is no requirement that the debtor own the collateral.
Dep't of Interior; promulating a regulation is not the type of agency action ripe for judicial review under the Administrative Procedure Act until there is a specific factual situation; APAStern v. Safe-harbor provision of 27A of the Securities and Exchange Act; fraud on the market theory; forward-looking statements must be accompanied by meaningful cautionary statements that adequately identify important risk factors. Tellabs, Inc.; When inferences of scienter drawn from the plaintiffs' complaint are at least as strong as any opposing inference, the plaintiffs have successfully pled the necessary scienter. Scientific-Atlanta, Inc.; To sustain a § 10(b) cause of action, there must be "requisite causal connection between defendant's misrepresentation and a plaintiff's injury." ; causation; proximate cause; reliance. An accused who requests the appointment of counsel at arraignment is permitted under the sixth amendment to consult with that counsel during any custodial interrogation by the police, absent waiver by the accused. Representations made by a debtor in a purchase-money security agreement regarding the intended use of the collateral will be binding on the debtor and will determine whether the collateral is for business or personal purposes.
Controlling shareholder; control of sale; presumtion that, in making a business decision, corporate directors act on an informed basis, in good faith, and in the honest belief that the action taken is in the company's best interests. Louisiana-Pacific Resources, Inc; The Commerce Clause is not implicated by a statute that regulates corporations even-handedly and imposes no special or distinct burden on out-of-state interests; dormant commerce clause; straight voting. Mc Kesson HBOC, Inc.; stockholder has right to make written demand to inspect corporate books and records for purpose reasonably related to person's interest as stockholder; derivative action; parent corporation; subsidiary corporation. Verizon Communications, Inc; Stockholders seeking inspection of corporate books and records must present some evidence suggest credible basis from which court can infer mismanagement, waste, or wrongdoing may have occurred. Omission to act by one under a legal duty to do so is sufficient for criminal liability if it is a substantial factor in bringing about the consequences prohibited by statute. Homicide; malice afterthought; manslaughter; murder. Causation; habeas corpus; intervening cause; second-degree murder; superseding cause.
Direct action; special injury test disapproved for determining whether a direct action exists; standing to assert direct action depends on whether the individual, not the corporation, suffered harm and would benefit from the recovery or remedy. F & W Acquisition LLC, recission, fraud, contracts may not be rescinded based on misrepresentations made during negotiations unless one party to contract made misrepresentations, knowing them to be false. Derivative Litigation, A director's independence turns on whether the director is, for any substantial reason, incapable of making a decision with only the best interests of the corporation in mind. Failure to instruct the jury on a material element of the prosecution's case violates the defendant's due process rights. A buyer may revoke acceptance of goods when a nonconformity impairs the value of the goods to the individual buyer, taking into account the needs and circumstances of the individual buyer.
What is ethical; business ethics; ethical issues; ethics requirements; ethical responsibility; ethical standards; attorney ethics and professional responsibility; legal ethics; mandatory ethics CLE; ethics class; ethical businesses. Energy Systems, Inc.; mere congregation of a corporation's directors in same room does not necessarily result in a board meeting, and does not obviate the need for adherence to corporate bylaws and General Corporation Law. Haft; Under Delaware corporation law, an interest sufficient to support an irrevocable proxy must either be an interest in the stock itself or an interest in the corporation generally, such as being CEO. Shareholders Litigation; The fiduciary duty of loyalty requires directors and officers to offer investment opportunities derived from corporate business to the corporation before acting on them individually. Private Securities Litigation Reform Act; Connect the inferences fraud Rule 10b-5. Securities and Exchange Commission; Because investors rely on the reputation, integrity, independence, and expertise of an underwriter, the underwriter has a obligation to investigate and disclose material facts. Despite a claim of innocence, the fifth amendment protection against self-incrimination is available to all those who have reasonable cause to apprehend danger from a direct answer. Perjury; criminal defendant is not deprived of the effective assistance of counsel when his lawyer admonishes him not to give perjured testimony and threatens to disclose to the court any false testimony the defendant may give. An employer may order a plant closing or mass layoff before the conclusion of the statutory sixty-day notice period if the closing or mass layoff is caused by business circumstances that were not reasonably foreseeable. Clay Ward Agency, Inc.; assumption of personal liability by a member of an LLC is so antithetical to the purpose of a limited liability company that it must be stated in unequivocal terms. In order for media coverage to infect a trial with unfairness, a juror's preconceived notions of guilt or innocence must prevent him or her from rendering a verdict based on the evidence presented in court. Even when capital defendant family members and defendant himself say no mitigating evidence, lawyer must make reasonable efforts to obtain and review prosecution evidence of aggravation at sentencing phase of trial. Counsel's failure to obtain the defendant's express consent to a strategy of conceding guilt in a capital trial does not render counsel's assistance ineffective when it is reasonable under the circumstances. a defendant can lose his right to be present at trial if, after warning by the judge, he conducts himself in a manner so disorderly, disruptive, and disrespectful of the court that trial cannot be carried on with him in courtroom. Millard Refrigerated Services, Inc.; limitation of liability in a warehouse receipt will limit liability, unless the damage was from the the warehouse's conversion of the goods to its own use. Chase Bank, USA; Unauthorized use of a credit card is use of the card by someone without actual, implied, or apparent authority to make charges, and from which the cardholder receives no benefit. Shell Oil Co.; claim for bad faith price setting; a price in an open price contract is set in good faith if it is commercially reasonable and nondiscriminatory; disparate pricing between jobbers and dealers is not evidence of discrimination Central Washington Refrigeration, Inc. Barbee; Uniform Commercial Code; indemnity actions are governed by separate statute of limitation; implied right of indemnity; separate equitable cause of action; UCC. Certified Packaging Corp.; security interest includes the proceeds from a recovery for decreased value of collateral, and not for loss of use of the collateral; destroyed property; damaged property. A person has a duty to avoid affirmative misrepresentations in referral letters and a duty to disclose omitted information if a fiduciary or confidential relationship exists or a pecuniary interest Racing Investment Fund 2000, LLC v. AFSCME Employees Pension Plan; bylaws may be unilaterally adopted by shareholders only when they appropriately relate to corporate processes rather than substantive decisions and do not otherwise violate the law. capital offense; death penalty; death sentence; voir dire. Causes of divorce; divorce costs; divorce laws; divorce advice; divorce attorney; dissolution of marriage; division of marital assets; divorce separation agreement; dividing marital assets; dividing marital property. Allegations in the complaint, taken together, must give rise to an inference that the defendant acted with the requisite scienter of false statements, knowing. Leonard; determining relationship includes reasonable expectation of significant investor control, and not investment contract, courts look beyond formal terms of documents circumstances surrounding relationship.; passive. Ishopnomarkup.com, Inc; A Rule 506 exemption is not forfeited when the issuer of stock makes a good faith effort to comply with its disclosure requirements; advice of councel; exemption; good faith. The standard for determining whether a defendant is competent to waive the right to counsel and to enter a guilty plea is the same as the standard for determining whether the defendant is competent to stand trial. Disbar for alcohol abuse; detection and prevention of alcohol and substance abuse in the legal profession; alcoholic lawyer; disbarment for drug abuse; attorney ethics violation; ABA Model Rules of Professional Conduct; lawyer legal ethics; CLE. If defendant plea of guilty is based on reasonably competent advice, it is intelligent plea not open to attack on the ground defendant counsel may have misjudged admissibility of defendant confession. When a prospective juror harbors preconceived notions of defendant guilt that cannot be set aside by consideration of the evidence, the juror must be dismissed for cause to ensure an impartial jury. When the evidence discloses any possibility that a juror views arise from the sufficiency of government evidence, disqualification must be denied.
Traditional Baking, Inc.; clients are the principals, the attorney is an agent; under law of agency, principal is bound by agent's deeds, except attorney misconduct outside the scope of employment. 8(a)(2) short and plain statement of the claim showing that pleader is entitled to relief, give the defendant fair notice of claim and grounds upon which it rests. General Motors Corp.; sanctionable spoliation is destruction or material alteration of evidence or failure to preserve property for another's use as evidence in pending or reasonably foreseeable litigation; manufacturer opportunity to inspect Harnden v. Darue Engineering & Manufacturing; federal forum for federal tax litigation sufficiently substantial for exercise of federal question jurisdiction; federal title law; division of labor between state and federal courts United Oil Co. Parts Associates, Inc.; may obtain discovery regarding any matter, not privileged, relevant to claim or defense; other lawsuits regarding similar products relevant to a defendant's failure to warn; indemnify; indemnity agreement. UBS Warburg LLC; corporate counsel has duty to communicate discovery obligations so all relevant information is discovered, retained, and produced; once duty to preserve attaches, identify all sources of discoverable information. Injury in fact and redressability must be established even under a federal statute conferring a private cause of action, private right of action, standing, personal injury, public, injury in fact. Federal cigarette advertising regulations preempt conflicting state regulations, congress expressly preempts state or local action, conflicting state regulation must yield to federal law, supremacy clause. Seelig, Inc., Barriers to commercial traffic between states, direct or indirect, violate the Commerce Clause when purpose and effect of such barriers is to suppress or mitigate the consequences of competition between states. Oneida-Herkimer Solid Waste Management Authority; Laws that favor government operations, but that treat all private businesses equally, do not violate the Commerce Clause; dormant commerce clause. Police dog; drug dog sniff luggage; K-9 dog; investigative detention; when officer's observations lead him reasonably to believe that luggage contains narcotics, officer may detain luggage briefly to investigate circumstances that aroused his suspicion. when police investigation is no longer general inquiry into unsolved crime but focuses on particular suspect in police custody, must allow opportunity to consult with lawyer or warn of absolute constitutional right to remain silent. These grounds are extreme such ascorruption, fraud, partiality, misconduct, etc. William and Martha Messerly; as-is clause may defeat grant of rescission for mutual mistake relating to a basic assumption that materially affects the parties' agreed performance.