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A less likely alternative is that the same genotype of the pathogen has been introduced twice to the same area.
Such introductions threaten crops and can hinder national and international agricultural markets and trade.Despite extensive eradication efforts, which resulted in the removal or cutting back of over 1.56 million commercial trees and nearly 600,000 infected and exposed dooryard citrus trees statewide, the infected area has increased to 1701 km) (70).On the other hand, eradication has met with limited success in one area in southeast Florida (Sun City Center) to the point of actually lifting the quarantine.In the meantime, a new and separate infestation of citrus canker was discovered in urban Miami in 1995, with an estimated introduction some time in 1992 or 1993 (25,68,69) (Fig. Concurrently, citrus canker was rediscovered in commercial citrus in Manatee County on the west coast of Florida in June 1997, where a similar eradication effort is currently in progress.Subsequent outbreaks of citrus canker have also occurred in both residential and commercial citrus in Collier, Hendry, Hillsborough, Palm Beach, Martin, De Soto, Monroe, and Brevard counties of Florida whose origins are believed to be related predominantly to the inoculum reservoir in residential Dade and Broward counties.
Thus, despite regulations concerning decontamination of personnel and equipment and strict prohibitions against citrus plant movement, human-assisted dispersal of the pathogen from Miami-Dade and Broward counties appears to have occurred several times.